Value Discarding

Scala includes a feature called “value discarding”. This interacts in possibly surprising ways when combining functions that side effect. In this post we’ll look at an example, and describe ways to work safely with value discarding.

Fast-fail with Unit

If you’re working with side-effects that might fail, there are various ways you can express that in Scala. One way is to use Either and Unit (thanks to Yosef Fertel for sharing this example with me):

import scala.util.{Either, Right, Left}

case class Failed(msg: String)

def run(): Either[Failed, Unit] = ???

What we’ve expressed here is that when run runs, it either fails and Failed can give us the reason for the failure. Or it worked and there’s nothing more to say (Unit).

We’re now going to try this out and mess it up.

Maybe we want to write a file, and then log that we did so. (Or write a file, and write the meta data for the file in a database. Or… any two methods you like with this type signature).

def write(): Either[Failed, Unit] = {
  Right( () ) // Success

def log(): Either[Failed, Unit] = {
  Left(Failed("during log"))

In these placeholder implementations the write always succeeds and the log always fails.

Unexpected compilation success

When it comes to using these methods we need to take care. This code block compiles but is wrong:

// Buggy
def run(): Either[Failed, Unit] = {
 write().map(_ => log())

We have incorrectly used map, when we should have used flatMap.

The map method expects a Unit => T argument, and we’ve given it a Unit => Either[Failed,Unit]. This is fine: as write is an Either[Failed,Unit], the result of map looks like it should be Either[Failed,Either[Failed,Unit]]. Indeed, if you run that line of code in the REPL it is Right(Left(Failed("during log"))).

What’s perhaps surprising is that this result (Either[Failed, Either[Failed,Unit]]) does not match the Either[Failed,Unit] signature on run. It seems like this should be a compile error, or a warning, indicating our mistake. But this code does compile without error or warning.

The result of run is Right(()), signalling to us that all was well with the computation, even though we know the log failed.

We have just met “value discarding”.

Value Discarding

Section 6.26.1 of the Scala Language Specification defines value discarding:

If e has some value type and the expected type is Unit, e is converted to the expected type by embedding it in the term { e; () }.

To illustrate this, when we type…

val r: Either[Failed,Unit] =
  Right(()).map(_ => Left(Failed("boom")))

…the compiler will treat this as:

val r: Either[Failed,Unit] =
  Right(()).map(_ => { Left(Failed("boom")); () } )

We can simplify the example further. As the Left[Failed] value is discarded, we can put anything we want there. Let’s throw in an Some[Int] for the hell of it:

scala> val r: Either[Failed,Unit] = Right(()).map(_ => Some(1) )
r: scala.util.Either[Failed,Unit] = Right(())

Note that this is happening because we’ve used Unit as our target type. If you look at the definition of Either

// Much simplified
sealed abstract class Either[+A, +B] {
 def map[Y](f: B => Y): Either[A, Y] = ???

…it’s reasonably clear that Y has to be Unit because we know best and we’ve said the result is Either[Failed, Unit].

Without annotating the result the compiler would not trigger value discarding, and would infer the type we expect:

scala> Right(()).map(_ => Some(1))
res1: scala.util.Either[Nothing,Some[Int]] = Right(Some(1))

Turn on the warnings

There are some situations where the compiler will give you a hint that something is amiss. If you have a simple expression, the compiler will warn you:

val r: Either[Failed,Unit] = Right(()).map(_ => 1)
warning: a pure expression does nothing in statement position
       val r: Either[Failed,Unit] = Right(()).map(_ => 1)

For a more general way to detect value discarding there is a better compiler flag:

scalacOptions ++= Seq(

If you can turn on that warning (and optionally make it fatal), you will catch the kind of problem we illustrated:

[error] main.scala:18: discarded non-Unit value
[error]    write().map(_ => log())
[error]                        ^

We suggest turning this flag on by default if you can.

Alternative encodings

If for some reason your project can’t turn on that warning, you can a look at alternative encodings of “side effect with no result”.

For example:

sealed trait Success
object success extends Success {
  override def toString: String = "success"

def write(): Either[Failed, Success] = {

def log(): Either[Failed, Success] = {
  Left(Failed("in log"))

We’re now using a case object to flag a happy outcome. As this is not Unit, value discarding will not come into play, and our mix up with map can’t happen:

// Hurrah! Won't compile
def run(): Either[Failed, Success] = {
  write().map(_ => log())

error: type mismatch;
 found   : scala.util.Either[Failed,Success]
 required: Success
         write().map(_ => log())

But that’s just if you cannot turn on the discarded values warning.


Be aware of value discarding, and turn on -Ywarn-value-discard by default. Check out tpolecat’s Scalac flags post for other recommended options.

If you can’t turn on the flag, and are stumbling into issues around value discarding, try an alternative encoding.

If you have better ways to encode computations with no value, please do share them in the comments below this post.

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