Slick Query Enrichment

Query enrichment (or query extensions) in Slick can provide a concise way to express domain-specific logic. This gives extra flexibility beyond Slick’s combinators, such as map and filter. This post builds up an example micro DSL, showing the benefits in clarity and reduced repetition.

Three Valued Flags

The example we’re focusing on here concerns users setting flags against records. If we had a message and we wanted to flag it as important, or not, we could model that as a Boolean with a default value of false. But it’s not unusual to have three states: true, false, or no value.

That “no value” part, often in legacy SQL systems, is a NULL. In Scala we represent the NULL possibility via an Option[Boolean]:

case class Message(content: String, important: Option[Boolean] = None)

And this is fully supported in the way we construct a table definition in Slick:

class MessageTable(tag: Tag) extends Table[Message](tag, "message") {
  def content   = column[String]("content")
  def important = column[Option[Boolean]]("important")
  def * = (content, important) <> (Message.tupled, Message.unapply)

That’s straight-forward, and causes no problems. What’s annoying is when you want to do something like search for messages that haven’t been flagged as important. Consider the possible values:

  • None, no flag has been set (which we treat as not important)
  • Some(false), explicitly flagged as not important.
  • Some(true), flagged as important.

You might think we could search for records where important =!= false, but that’s not the way SQL works. In SQL we have to query for records where important IS NULL or important = false:

val query = messages.filter(m => m.important.isEmpty || m.important === false)

That works just fine, but:

  • it gets repetitive, fast (imagine you have multiple columns that are flags); and
  • it’s also easy to get this query logic wrong.

What we can do is add our own application DSL for this, and write:

val query = messages.notFlagged(_.important)

Enrichment lets us do that.


Enrichment is a standard aspect of Scala development, introduced as implicit classes. It allows us to add methods to a type:

implicit class IntOps(n: Int) {
  def stars: String = (1 to n).map(_ => '*').mkString

// res0: String = *****

Providing the implicit IntOps is in scope, the compiler will use it to supply a stars method to any Int that wants it.

We’ll copy and paste this as the basis of our notFlagged method.

Query Enrichment

To use this approach, we need to change the types and method name in IntOps:

import scala.language.higherKinds

implicit class QueryEnrichment(q: ???) {
  def notFlagged(???) =

This implicit needs to apply to a query, rather than an Int. In fact, we’re happy for it to apply to any query, and the type of any query in Slick is Query[M, U, C]:

  • M is called the mixed type (the types that take part in a query);
  • U is called the unpacked type (the types you end up with); and
  • C is called the collection type (e.g., a Seq or Vector or similar, as appropriate).

That allows us to fill in the q part of our enrichment:

implicit class QueryEnrichment[M,U,C[_]](q: Query[M,U,C]) {
  def notFlagged(???): Query[M,U,C] =

The argument for notFlagged is going to be something to select an Option[Boolean] column. In Slick 3, the column is represented as a Rep[T] so the type of the expression _.important will be M => Rep[Option[Boolean]]:

implicit class QueryEnrichment[M,U,C[_]](q: Query[M,U,C]) {
  def notFlagged(selector: M => Rep[Option[Boolean]]): Query[M,U,C]  =

That is, whatever we pass to notFlagged, it had better be something that is given an M and gives us back a Rep[Option[Boolean]]. In other words, it’s a compiler error to pass in _.content (that’s a Rep[String]), but fine to pass in _.important (that’s an Rep[Option[Boolean]]).

Finally, we fill in the query by replacing the _.important in our original example with our selector function:

implicit class QueryEnrichment[M,U,C[_]](q: Query[M,U,C]) {
  def notFlagged(selector: M => Rep[Option[Flag]]): Query[M,U,C] =
    q.filter(m => selector(m).isEmpty || selector(m) === false)

Putting this together we can write a program to create a database, populate it, and select the messages with our notFlagged:

def testData = Seq(
  Message("Party details",      Some(true)),
  Message("Timesheet reminder", Some(false))

val program = for {
  _    <- messages.schema.create
  _    <- messages ++= testData
  msgs <- messages.notFlagged(_.important).result
} yield msgs


Enrichment provides a neat way to simplify repetitive, error-prone queries.

The first time I saw this kind of trick in action was in Christopher Vogt’s 2013 Patterns for Slick Database Applications presentation. If you want to see different examples, do check out that video.

The example above builds this up for an Option[Boolean]. That’s a very general type, possibly in use for things other than flags. In that case, it would make sense to create a type, Flag, and restrict the notFlagged method to apply only to Option[Flag]. I’ve created an example of that as a gist.

This is the kind of material we’re including in Essential Slick. Working with the type system and Slick is something we consider part of the essentials you need.

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